Policy Area
Economic Development
Publication Type
Project Report

Occupational licensing and professional registration balance protecting the health and safety of the public with the potential economic barriers posed by those requirements. For example, psychologists in Missouri (outside of reciprocity agreements) must have either a doctoral degree and one year’s experience, or a master’s degree and three years’ experience. They must also pass a subject matter examination, a Missouri jurisprudence examination, and an oral interview and pay a $150 licensing fee. Another licensed occupation is sign language interpreters for the deaf. Interpreters must practice in a demonstrated area of competence, hold a certification from the National Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf, National Association of the Deaf, or Missouri Interpreter Certification System; and submit a $75 application fee. This report updates previous research conducted in 2016 with new information concerning licensing requirements, women’s participation in the workforce, national and state policy updates, and the impact of the global COVID-19 pandemic. The Institute of Public Policy has produced this updated policy report, which provides: An updated look at women in the workforce in the US and Missouri, An update on the state of occupational licensing in Missouri, A discussion of the impact of COVID-19 on women in the workforce and occupational licensing, An update on policies concerning licensing in the US and Missouri since 2016, A review of policy considerations.


Dicke, R., & Hansen, J.  (2022).  Occupational Licensing and Women in Missouri:  Report Update.  Project report prepared for United Women’s Empowerment.